Saturday, September 14, 2013

trivastal retard 50

trivastal retard 50
Les Laboratoires Servier - SEn VIER trivastal® retard 50 • Read all of this leaflet carefully before you start taking this medicine. It contains important information on your treatment. 
• If you have any further questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist 
• Keep this leaflet. You may need to read it again. 
• If the symptoms worsen or persist, consult your doctor. 
Composition: Each tablet contains: 50 mg of Piribedil. 
Excipients : q.s.f. one tablet. 
Presentation: - Box containing one blister of 10 sustained release coated tablets. — - Box containing two blisters of 10 sustained release coated tablets each. - Box containing three bleters of 10 sustained release coated tablets each. Pharmacotherapeutic class: DOPAMINERGIC AGONISTS Therapeutic indications: This medicine is indicated in: 
• the treatment of age-related minor neurological disoiders, 
• adjunctive treatment of lowec limb arteritis (disease of the leg arteries that causes painful cramps on walking), 
• visual disorders of circulatory origin, 
• certain forms of Parlcinsons dlaease-. 
Contraindications: This medicine should not be used lIt the following cases: 
• history of allergy to piribedil, 
• myocardial infarction or other serious cardiovascular disease, 
• combined with: 
- antiemetic neuroleptics (see Interactions with other drugs and other forms of interactions). - antipsychotic neuroleptics (except dozapine) in nonparkinsonian patients (see Interactions with other drugs and other forms of interactions). IF IN DOUBT, IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT YOU ASK YOUR DOCTOR OR PHARMACIST FOR ADVICE. Special warnings: You must consult your doctor in case of excessive drowsiness or sudden sleeping fits during your TRIVASTAL treatment 
Cases of cravings andlor impulsive behaviour (compulsive attraction to gambling or increase in sexual drive) have been reported in patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease treated with TRIVASTAL. These cases occurred mainly in patients treated with high doses and were generally reversible after decreasing the doses or stopping the treatment. 
This medicine should not be used in case of fructose intolerance, glucose and galactose malabsorplion syndrome or sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (rare metabolic diseases), due to the presence of sucrose. 
Precautions for use: It is preferable to take the tablets at the end of a meal. IF IN DOUBT, DO NOT HESITATE TO ASK YOUR DOCTOR OR 
FOR ADVICE. Interactions with other drugs and other fom,s of interactions: This medicine must not be used combined with certain medicines (see Contraindications).
IN ORDER TO AVOID POSSIBLE INTERACTIONS BEtWEEN SEVERAL MEDICINES and in particular neuroleptics (except clozapine) and some medicines used for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, YOU MUST ALWAYS INFORM YOUR DOCTOR OR PHARMACIST OF ANY OTHER CURRENT TREATMENT. Pregnancy and Breast-feeding: IN GENERAL, YOU SHOULD ALWAYS ASK YOUR DOCTOR OR 
Drivers and machine operators: TRIVASTAL can induce drowsiness and sudden sleeping fits. In such cases, you must not drive nor perform any activity for which an 
impairment in your vigilance could 
expose you or other persons to a nsk of serious accident or death (for example the use of machinery) until the disappearance of such effects. 
List of excipients whose knowledge is necessary for risk- free use in some patients: Sucrose, cochineal red A (E124) Dosage and administration: Oral route. The dosage is strictly individual. It is defined by your doctor. ALWAYS USE AS INDICATED IN YOUR DOCTOR’S PRESCRIPTION. THIS MEDICINE WAS PERSONALLY DISPENSED OR PRESCRIBED TO YOU FOR A SPECIFIC SITUATION: 
• IT 
The tablets should be swallowed, without chewing, with half a glass of water atilie eird of the meal. 
Do not stop treatment without medical advice. 
Overdosage: inform your doctor immediately in case of massive absorption. Side effects: liKE ALL MEDICINES, THIS PRODUCT MAY, IN CERTAIN INDIVIDUALS, GIVE RISE TO VARYING DEGREES OF UNPLEASANT EFFECTS: - minor digestive disorders, (nausea, vomiting, flatulence), which may disappear with a decrease in the dose;, - drowsiness, sudden sleep fits; - more rarely: nervousness or agitation that disappear on stopping the treatment; - exceptionally: orthostatic hypotension (decrease in blood pressure in the standing position that could be accompanied by dizziness); - risk of allergic reactions due the presence of Cochineal red A (E124). Cases of pathological gambling (gambling compulsion), hypersexuality and increase in libido have been reported with TRIVASTAL. INFORM YOUR DOCTOR OR PHARMACIST OF ANY UNDESIRABLE AND UNPLEASANTEFFECTNOTMENTIONED IN THIS LEAFLET. Shelf life: —=— - ,--,...--- Do not use after the expiry date marked on the outer packaging. Storage conditions: Store below 300 C in a dry place.
Keep all mCdicaments out of the reach and sight of children Manufactured by: SERVIER EGYPT INDUSTRIES LIMITED 
6th October City 
- GUIZA - A.R.E. Under Licence of: Los Laboratoires Servier - France 02—472 F


GYNOZOL 200 or 400 Broad Spectrum Vaginal Soft Gelatin Capsules Antimycotic Composition: 
Each vaginal soft gelatin capsule contains: 
Miconazole nitrate 200 or 400mg 
or 400 VagInal Soft Gelatin Capeules contain miconazole nitrate, the broad spectrum antimycotlc agent. Mlconazola nitrate exerts a potent fungicidal activity agalnat the common pathogenic fungi including Candida species, yeasts and darmatophytes. It exerts Its fungicldal effect through inhibItiOn of ergosterol synthesis resulting in disruption of the integrity of cell membranes of sensitive fungi. Miconszole nitrate also possesses bactericidal action against Gram-positive bacilli and cocci. Because of this broad spectrum activity, QYNOZOL 200 or 400 is particularly useful in mixed vulvovaginal infections. Clinical studies have also evidenced that miconazole nitrate is significantly more effective than nystatin In vulvovaginal candidiasls with rapid relief of symptoms such as burning sensation, pruritus and leukorrhea. The use of GYNOZOL 200 or 400 is considered safe even during pregnancy as the released miconazole nitrate acts topically with poor absorption from the vagina. 
indicef ions: 
- Vaginal and vuivovaginal infections caused by Candlda (moniliasis) or other sensitive fungi. 
Vaginal mycoses secondarily infected by Gram-positive bacteria. 
Leukorrhea with itching and burning sensation of the vulva when csndidal or 
bacterial infection Is suspected. 
affects: GYNOZOL 200 or 400 VagInal Soft Gelatin Capsules are welt-tolerated. Contraindicattone: None Is known. Dosage and us.: 
Gynozol 200: One cepsule should be inserted deeply into the vagina at bedtime for 
6 consecutive days. 
Gynozol 400: One capsule should be inserted deeply into the vagina at bedtime for 
3 consecutive days. 
Packing: A box containing 6 vaginal soft gelatin capsules (200mg) or 3 veginal soft gelatin 
capsules (400 mg.). 
Storage: Keep in a cool dry place. 
Keep Out of the reach of children.


Amiodarone hydrochloride 
Composition: Amiodarone hydrochloride 200 mg 
Excipients: Lactose, corn starch, povidone, colloidal silica anhydrous, magnesium stearate for one scored tablet 
When this medicine should be used: It is used in preventing and treating certain cardiac rhythm disorders 
Attention: In what cases not to be used: 
Contraindications: Not to be used in the following cases: - Known allergy to iodine of amiodarone or one of the other constituents of the product - Hyperthyroidism - some troubles of arrhythmias and / or cardiac conduction - Very slow cardiac rhythm - Starting from the 1st trimester of the pregnancy - Lactation - In combination with drugs that can give torsades de pointes 
(serious heart rhythm disturbances): Antiarrhythmics clss I 
(quinidine, hydroquinidine, disopyramide), Antiarrhythmics class 
Ill (sotalol, dofetilide, ibutilide) 
- Suttopride (Neuroleptic) - Other drugs such as (bepridil, cisapride, diphernanhl, erythromycin IV, Spiramycin IV) (Drug interactions and other interactions). 
Special warning: 
- Using Amiodarone with Simvastatin in dose more than 20mg: 
may increase risk of Rhabdoniyolysis 
- Tell your doctor In case of acute shortness of breath, difficulty of breathing, dry cough which could be isolated or associated with an alteration of general condition, fatigue, persistent fever, __________ unexplained diarrhea, weight loss, muscle pain, reduced vision, or in case of recurrence of too fast heart beats. - Due to presence of lactose, this drug should not be used in case of congenital galactosemia, malabsorption of glucose and galactose or lactase deficiency (rare metabolic diseases) 
for use: - Protect yourself from the sun for the whole duration of treatment to avoid the occurrence of “sunburn”. - During treatment, blood tests should be applied to monitor your thyroid or liver functions. - Before surgery inform your Anesthesiologist that you have been treated with Amiodarone. - Tolerance and efficacy is not known in children. Drug interactions & other interactions: - To avoid possible interactions between multiple drugs you should report any ongoing treatment to your doctor. - This drug should not be used in association with susceptible drugs which may induce torsades de polities (serious heart rhythm disturbances) such as drags indicated to treat rhythm disorders (quinidine. hydroquinidine, disopyramide, dofetilide, ibutilide, sotalol) and other drugs such as (bepridil, cisapride, diphemanil, erythromycin IV, Spiramycin IV). - These contraindications are not applicable in ease of cardiac failure associated with ventricular fibrillation resistant to external shock. - This drug should be avoided in association with cyclosporine, diltiazem injection, verapamil, some antiparasites (halofantrine, lumefantrine, pentamidine) some neuroleptics (chlorpromazinc, cyamemazine, levomepromazine, thioridazine, trifluoperuzine, amisuipride, sulpride, tiapride, veralipride, droperidol, haloperidol, pimozide) and with methadone. Pregnancy & Lactation: - Due to the presence of iodine, use of this drug is contraindicated starting from the 1st trimester of pregnancy. - In ease of treatment by this drug breastfeeding is contraindicated.
- In general, you should inform your doctor or your pharmacist before using this drug during pregnancy and Lactation. Dose: The usual dose is highly variable from one person to another but the usual dose is: Acute Attack treatment: 3 tablets per day for 8 to 10 days Maintenance treatment: 1/2 tablet to 2 tablets per day In all cases, you must not change or stop the dose without medical advice. Route of administration: Oral Frequency and time at which the drug should be administrated: Tablets can be swallowed before, during or between meals, the fact of crushing the tablets does not alter their properties. Treatment duration: Seek strictly the order of your doctor. In case of overdose: 
In case you took an excessive dose, call your doctor as soon as possible or call any poison control center in your area What to do if you forgot to take your dose? 
In case you forgot to take a dose, there is no particular risk. Do not take a double dose to make up the single dose you have missed. 
Undesirable effects: As other active products, this drug may cause some undesirable effects for some people. 
This should be reported to your doctor who will advise whether you should continue or stop your treatment 
Very frequently: 
- Visual disturbances (colored halos around objects) - Skin reaction to sunlight - Changes in thyroid hormones without clinical signs of thyroid disease - Increase liver enzymes levels in the blood (transaminase) - Benign digestive symptoms (nausea, vomiting, dysphagia) - Thyroid disease (weight gain, nervousness and fatigue, or contrary, excessive weight loss and diarrhea) - Respiratory problems (shortness of breath, breathlessness, fever, dry cough) - Tremors - Sleep disturbances including nightmares - Difficulty walking (damage of nerves endings) - Acute liver damage and / orjaundice, which can be very serious - Slow heart rate Little frequently: - Cardiac conduction disturbances - Injury of limb muscles 
Very rarely: 
- Blurred vision or decreased vision - Skin reactions with redness and itching - Hair Loss - Breathing problems in asthmatic patients and / or during surgical procedure which can be very serious - Chronic hepatitis - Slowing of heart rate - Decrease of blood platelets 
• Kidney damage 
- Headache (at the onset of headache, see your doctor). 
Inform your doctor or pharmacist about any undesirable effects not 
mentioned in this Icatlet 
Storage: Do not exceed the cxpiry date mentioned on the pack. 
Store at temperature ‘not exceeding 25’C, in a dry place. 
Presentation: Carton box containing 3 blisters of 10 scored tablets each. Keep out of reach of children  GLOBAL NAPI PHARMACEUTICALS _... 2’ Irrdastriol Zone, 6’of October City. Egypt 
I aVenhlS Under license of Sanofi Aventis - France


UR-AID Uricosuric & 
Effervescent granules for acute gout 
Each 5 g sach.t contains: 
Plp.razln. hydrate 0.128 g 
Colchlcln. 0.3 mg 
sulfate 0.128 mg 
Eff.rvescent baa. to 5 g 
UR—AID .fferv.scent granules is a multi—functional formulation 
Combining three active ingredients which act In 
harmony with multipl, complementary activlti.e for the 
management of acute attacks of gout and for promoting 
urinary excretion of uric acid. Piperazine act. by dissolving 
uric acid thus preventing its deposition in the urinary tract. 
This property •n.ur.s the •ftectiveness of UR-AID in 
treatment of gout and urinary urat. lithiasis. Atropine 
sulfate is an antispasmodic whIch rell.v.s urethric spasms 
accompanying urinary washout of 
urste crystals. OR-AID 
also contains coichicin. that provides prompt relief of pain 
In gouty attacks. In additIon. UR—A1D causes an Increase in 
urine pH and is well tolerated by all patients. All these 
properties ensure effectIve relief of acute attacks of gout 
and facIlItat, rapid excretion of urates In a mor. soluble form. 
 Acute gout and short-term prophylaxis during initial 
therapy with ailopurlnol and uricosuric drugs. — Prophyiaxis against urinary urate Stones. DOSAGE: 
The content. of one sachet are dissolved In a hail giass 
water and taken before meals thre. times daily or as prescribed by the physician. 
It Is recommended not to exceed the r.commend.d doss 
to prevent the occurrenc, of side effect. in the nervous 
system especIally in 
patients with renal disease. 
OR-AID Is safe and wsil tolerated. Mild aide 
effects such as 
nausea, dry mouth and abdominal pain may occur in some 
Narrow-angle glaucoma, myasthenla gravIs. paralytic lieu.. 
pyioric stanosla, prostatlc •niargement, pregnancy and lactation. 
Coichicin. increases plasma cyclosporins concentrations. 
This drug should not be used except Under medIcal 
sup.rvision and not to be dlspsnssd except with a medical prescription. 
Th. product shuid be used wIth caution In reflux 0.50- 
phagitis. ulcerative colitis, acute myocardial infarction, 
hypertension and conditions characterized by tachycardia. 
A box containing 
e, 12 or eo sachet.. _______ 
Keep eta temperature (15 —30 C). 
Keep out of reach of chIldren. PRODUCED BY —Ii— — 
PHARO New Borg El-Arab City Alexandria, A.R.E. PHARMA


STOPAIN Caplets Effective Analgesic & Antipyretic Composition: Each caplet contains: 
Propyphenazone 150mg 
Paracetamol 300mg 
Caffeine 50 mg 
- Stopain contains propyphenazone and paracetamol - non narcotic analgesics - which work together to raise the threshold to painful stimuli, thus exerting an analgesic effect against pain of different origins. 
Caffeine enhances the analgesic effect of propyphenazone & paracetamol. 
Indications: Stopain is indicated in all conditions associated with pain and fever such as: * Common cold which is usually accompanied with fever, headache, bone and muscle aches. * Headache & migraine. * Toothache and post minor & major dental operations. * Backache, rheumatic & muscle pain. * Post surgical operations. Side effects: Disturbance in WBC5 count rarely occurs - as with all pyrazolme derivatives - so, for long term therapy, WBCs count should be done, and if the patient suffered from decrease in WBCs, the drug should be stopped. 
Adults: One to two caplets every six hours, do not exceed 8 caplets per day. 
Contraindications: * Propyphenazone was considered to be unsafe in patients with acute porphyria. * Known hypersensitivity to any of the product components. Warnings: Use with care in patients with impaired kidney or liver functions. - Storage: Store below 30 C 
Out of reach ofchildren. Package: Pack of 10 caplets. 
Pack of 20 caplets. 
Pack of 200 caplets. 
Manufactured by 
EVA Pharma for Pharmaceuticals & Medical Appliances, Egypt


PSYCHODAL 1,2,3 & 4 mg F.C.Tablets
Each tablet Contains: 
Risperidone 1, 2, 3mg or 4mg 
Psychodal (risperidone) is a novel antipsychotic belonging to a new class of antipsychotic agents, the benzisoxazole - derivatives. Risperidone is a selective monoaminergic antagonist with a high affinity for both serotonergic 5-HT2 and dopaminergic D2 receptors. 
Rispendone binds also to siphal - adrenergic receptors and with lower affinity to histaminergic and alpha2 - adrenergic receotors 
Pharmacokinetics: —Psye*iodaHw completely absorbed after oral administration reaching peak plasma concentration after ito 2 hours the absorption is not affected by food ,Risperidone is metabolized to 9 - hydroxyrisperidone, which has a similar pharmacological activity as risperidone The elimination half - life of g hydroxyrisperidone is 24 hours. Indications: -Treatment of acute and chronic schizophrenic psychoses and other psychotic conditions in which positive symptoms (such as hallucinations, delusion,thought disturbances , hostility, suspiciousness) and / or negative 
symptoms(such as blunted affect, emotional and social withdrawal, poverty of speech) are prominent. 
- Alleviates affective symptoms 
( such as depression, guilt feelings, anxiety) associated with schizophrenia.
Dosge and administration: Switching from other antipsychotics, where medically appropriate, gradual withdrawal of the previous treatment v1iile Psychodal (risperidone) therapy is recommended. Adults: All patients whether acute or chronic cases, should start with 2 mg/day risperidone, The dosage should be increased to 4 mg/day on the second day and 6 mg /day on the third day, then the dose can be maintained unchanged.The usual optimum dose is 4-8 mg/day however, some patients may benefit from lower doses. 
Special population: Elderh, eb’!iffit,d, patients with severe renal or hepatic impairment, and patients either predisposed to hypotension or for whom hypotension wauld pose a risk; 
A starting dose of 0.5 mg twice daily is recommended , this dose can be increased tol -2 mg twice daily. 
Children: Experience is lacking in children aged less than 15 years. Contraindications: Risperidone is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to the product. Precautions: - Due to the alpha - blocking activity of risperidone, Orthostatic hypotension can occur. 
- Risperidone should be used with cautions in patients with cardiovascular diseases. 
- Caution should be exercised when prescribing risperidone to patients With parkinson’s disease since , theoretically, it
may cause deterioration of the disease. Use during pregnancy and lactation: - The safety of risperidone for use during humarrregnancy has not been established, therefore, Risperidone should only be used during pregnancy if the benefits outweigh the risks 
It is not known whether risperidone is excreted in human milk , therefore, women receiving 
risperidone should not breast-feed. Effect on driving ability 
and operation of machinery: 
Patients should not drive or operate machine until their individual susceptibility is known. 
Sete e 
- Insomnia , agitation and headache are common. 
- Fatigue, dizziness and constipation are less common 
- Off hostatic hypotension occasionally occurs. 
Storage Conditions: 
Store between 15-30°C in a 
dry place and protect from light. Pack: Boxes containing 10 or 30 tablets each of 1 mg. Boxes containing 10 or 30 tablets each of 2 mg. Boxes containing 10 or 30 tablets each of 3 mg. Boxes containing 10 or 30 tablets each of 4 mg. 
Keep out of the reach of children 
Produced by 
Tenth of Ramadan City, ARE.



For I.V,  I.M. injection.

Produced by: Sigma-Tec Pharmaceutical Industries. Egypt. SA.E.


For the medical profession onlyEpicoflocin® 
Scored film coated tablets 
Each scored film coated tablet contains: 
Offoxacin 200mg 
Properties and Mode of action: Epicoflodn is a Ituoroquinolone antibacterial with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria such as: E coil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirablils and nuigaris, Kiebsiella sp. Kemophllus lnlluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalls, Salmonella op., Shigelta sp.,Campylobacter sp. Acinerobacler op., Neisseria gonorrhoeae and meningitidis, Morganella molganhi, Providentla reltgerl and stuacril, Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis including methicillin-rnsistant and methlclllin-suscepllble strains), Staphylococcus saproptilticus, Streptococcus agalactiae,pyogenes and pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecabs, Legionella op., and Chiamydia trachomatis. It acts on the bacterial DNA gyrase enzyme and thus inhibits DNA replication. Pharmacokinetlos: Ofioxacin Is rapidly and well-absorbed from the gaslrotnientlnal tract, and Is widely distributed to most body tissues, it crosses the CSF, placenta, and is distributed through the breast milL Its bloavailability is approtomately 98% and 32% in bound to plasma protein. Ills slightly metabolized In the liver, and Is eliminated mainly by the kidneys with 70-80% recovered in urine in the active form. Plasma half life is about 5—7 hours.
Indications, Dosage and Administration: Eplcoltodn® tablets should be swatowed whole with a sufficient quantity of liquid, and it maybe taken with meals

Unit Dose
Urmary Tract
Cysritis due toE coil Or K. pneumoniae
oo tog
q 12 tots
3 days
Cysritis due to sitter organisms
q 12 tots
7 days
omplicated tlfls
q 12 tots
10 days
Respiratory Tract
Exacerbation of cbrs,tlr
4110 tog
q 12 hrs
q 12 tots
10 days
skin and 
skin Stricture


q 12 tim
6 weebs
Acxtn UsCotnptbsttrd gonorrhea
Single dose
1 day
Cernlsitis/Uretiltltis duet C. tradromatts
q 12 bits 
7 days
Cervrcltis/tirethrlss duet N. gonorrhoeae
oo mg
rg 12 tots
7 days
Renal Function Impairment Milan dosage In patients with a creatinine clearance value of 50 mi/mm. After a normal initial dose, adjust the dosing Interval as follows: - Crearinine clearance 10—80 mi/mItt, use a 24 hours interval and do not adjust the dosage. - Creatinme clearance 0 10 mI/mm, use a 24 hours interval and one  half the recommended dosage. 
CDC) Centern for Disease 
Control and Prevention) recommended schedules for Chlamydla, Epididlmytis, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease IPID) and Gonorrhea: 
300mg orally 2 times/day for 7 days I alternative regimen. -Epldidbmytls: 300 mg orally 2 lImes/day for 10 days I alternatIve regtmen .PID, outpatient:400 mg orally 2 times/day for 14 days plus clindamycin or metronidozole. - Goosococcal Infections, uncomplicated: 400 tog orally in a single dose plus Missed dose: It you miss a dose, take it as soon as you can. If Iris almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose, do not doable the dose to make up for the mtssed dose. Patients should drink sufficient quantity of water or other liquid every day. Drug interactions: - The concomitant administration of Eplcoflocin° with antacids containing calcium, aluminium, magnesium; sucralfate; drugs containing Iron; and multivltamins containing zinc results in decrease efficacy of Eplcoflocmn®, so they should sot be taker within the 2 hours period before or after administration of the drug. - Concomitant administratIon with wartarin enhances the effect of warfarin and prolongs the prothrOmbin time. - Disturbances of blood glucose may occur In patients treated concurrently with antidlabetic agents (e.g. insulin or glibenclamide (, so diabetic patients should be monitored. Precautions: Epicoflocin® should be used cautiously th: 
- Renal 
or hepatic Impairment. - Patients with bnown or suspected CNS disotder thai may predispose to seizures or 
lower the 
seizure threshold (e.g. severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy). - Excessive sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light should be avoided. 
Epicofiodn® may alter the reactivity to such an extent that the ability to drive 
vehicles or operate 
machines may be impaired. 
- Epicoflocirs® 
should be discontinued if the patient experiences pain, Inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Pregnancy and lactation: Eplcofbocln° Is contraindicated during pregnancy, and must be used cautiously during lactation. Contra-indications: - Hypetsensitivity in the product or to any member of the fluoroqulnolones. - Children under 18 years of age. Side effects: Nausea, vomiling, abdominal pain, diarrhea, talulenco, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, Insomnia, fatigue, rash, primlus, vaginitis, photosensitivity reactions, visual disturbances, hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, and In rare cases elevation of liver enzytnes. Storage conditions: Store at temperature not exceeding 30’C.
Dosage GuidelInes
How supplied: 10 scored Elm coated tablets. Revision Date: July 2008.
EL P. L CO. 
lo OF